Stephen Matthews (the chair of the physiology department) and Dawn Owen and Marcus Andrews (two of his research colleagues in U of T’s faculty of medicine) self-plagiarized in a paper in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews from five earlier reports. The allegations prompted a retraction of their 2005 paper, which was about the side effects of a drug commonly given to pregnant women at risk of early delivery. The article now has the word “retracted” stamped on it in large red font. The editor-in-chief of Retraction Watch, a group that investigates plagiarism in academia, revealed that the misconduct was caught by a software engine that the journal is now using. The notice stated that the retracted article “represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system”. Lloyd Rang, the executive director of communications at U of T’s faculty of medicine, said that they will not name the software used to detect the plagiarism. It is possible that it was Turnitin, a piece of software U of T often uses to find and deter plagiarism in student work. Rang describes the case as a “copyright squabble over a paper that was always intended as a review”. Rang did not comment on whether U of T will treat the plagiarism as an instance of research misconduct. Matthews himself declined to comment. His research has received more than $18 million from the Canadian Institute of Health Research and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Neither organization had a comment on the case. As well, Susan Zimmerman, the executive director of Canada’s Secretariat of Research Ethics, said, “We cannot comment on whether a matter is under review or what recourse, if any, an agency has taken with respect to a matter.” The Federal Framework for the Responsible Conduct of Research defines redundant publication, a type of self-plagiarism, as the “reproduction of one’s own previously published work or part thereof, or data, in the same or another language, without adequate acknowledgment of the source, or justification.